Block diagram of IoT Based Transformer Monitoring SystemUsing Arduino will represent the complete visual representation to understand the project concept.
Understand the Proposed System
The Proposed monitoring system based on IoT consists of three main systems:
- Parameter measurement subsystem
- Protection Subsystem
- Data reception subsystem.
Firstly, transformer electrical and physical parameters are measured by using the Parameter measurement subsystem. Electrical parameters consist of internal flux, voltage, current, KVA, Frequency and power factor and in physical parameter we included temperature, oil level, oil quality and humidity.
To measure the above parameter, we need different sensors and modules to interface with the Arduino microcontroller. A list of the component is provided in the next section.
In the protection subsystem, Arduino controls the operation of a fan and protection relay to protect the transformer in a fault condition.
The current state and measured parameters are sent to the remote IoT server by using the data reception subsystem. We have two IoT platforms are available to use for testing first is thingspeak and Ubidot stem.
By using the IoT and Arduino monitoring and protection algorithm, a smart self-protection system is designed for the transformer. Where, if any major fault (overvoltage, overvoltage, interturn, stage 2 temperature etc.) detected in transformer monitoring system transformer is immediately shut down. If transformer is not serviced in low oil quality, low oil level, the system will send alert
Optional feature: The Protection system will separate loads based on priority in case of minor fault in transformer. Disconnect the less important load (workshops, residence etc ) and it will keep loads of high importance (hospitals, substations etc.). If the transformer available rating is unable to run loads of high importance, in this case system will separates all loads and stay in the no-load status where the monitoring system monitor its parameters by itself, if all major parameters of the transformer return to the normal level, the monitoring system automatically reconnect the loads in priority order.