est innovative Seminar topic on the latest technology for electrical and electronics engineering students for paper presentation.
Superconductivity: Present and Future Applications
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and rejection of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a critical temperature.
Superconductor-based products are extremely environmentally friendly compared to their conventional counterparts. They generate no greenhouse gases and are cooled by non-flammable liquid nitrogen (nitrogen comprises 80% of our atmosphere) as opposed to conventional oil coolants that are both flammable and toxic.
They are also typically at least 50% smaller and lighter than equivalent conventional units which translate into economic incentives. These benefits have given rise to the ongoing development of many new applications in the following sectors:
Superconductivity Application in Power System
If we have conductor with no loss, we can make more efficient and reliable electrical infrastructure. Superconductor, which is zero resistance, is one of the promising solution to make innovation on electric grids.
Superconductors enable lots of applications to support our aging and heavily loaded electric power infrastructure – for example, in generators, transformers, high tension underground cables, synchronous condensers and fault current limiters.
Other promising applications in power system are Superconducting Synchronous Condenser (DSC :SuperVar) and Superconducting motor. SuperVar is a good solution as reactive power compensator which can be applied to increase power transmission capability on voltage stability limited system.
The high power density and electrical efficiency of superconductor wire result in highly compact, powerful devices and systems that are more reliable, efficient, and environmentally.
Vortex .Bladeless Wind Generator
THE FUTURE OF WIND TURBINES? NO BLADES
Day by day energy demand is rising, to meet that demand in the future, civilization will be forces to research and develop alternative energy sources. In order to survive the energy crisis, many engineers in the energy industry are inventing new ways to generate energy from nonconventional energy sources.
Their idea is the Vortex, a bladeless wind turbine that looks like a giant rolled joint shooting into the sky. The Vortex has the same goals as conventional wind turbines: To turn breezes into kinetic energy that can be used as electricity. A more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly way to produce energy.
Future energy solutions
- Here’s a list of some of the solutions, that might help to power our sustainable energy future.
- Underwater Wind Turbine
- Vortex .Bladeless Wind Generator
- Biomass Briquettes
- Micro nuclear reactor
- Energy From waste
- Enhanced Geothermal Systems
- Photosynthetic Solar Cell
- Green Hydrocarbons
- Magenn Air Rotor System (Mars
Rain Power: Harvesting Energy from the Sky
Trying to find alternative sources of energy has proven to be an extraordinary feat, allowing us to use everything from sun to the motion of the ocean. But there is still one plentiful source of renewable energy which has so far remained pretty much untapped: rain. Getting energy from falling water droplets might seem like an obvious, ‘why didn’t I think of that’ idea, but so far no-one has really exploited this plentiful (albeit somewhat unreliable) energy source. Now a team from CEA/Leti-Minatec has created a system that is capable of recovering kinetic energy from the impact of falling raindrops.
To capture the raindrops’ mechanical energy, the scientists used a PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) polymer, a piezoelectric material that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. When a raindrop impacts the 25-micrometer-thick PVDF, the polymer starts to vibrate. Electrodes embedded in the PVDF are used to recover the electrical charges generated by the vibrations.
Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2008-01-power-harvesting-energy-sky.html#jCp
Slotless Ac Induction Motor
The present invention is a rotating induction motor that is capable of providing higher peak torque than a conventional design, which achieves the shortcomings of the prior art by in regard to iron saturation by a slotless design; removing the iron slot provides more space for the conductor. The motor comprises a stator and a concentric rotor, separated from the stator by an air gap. The rotor has rotor bars and rotor windings. The stator is slot-less and comprises surface mounted conductors separated from each other by suitable insulation. An advantage of this design is that the motor does not exhibit typical behavior at high currents; there is no saturation effect
Photosynthetic Solar Cell
- A game-changing solar cell that cheaply and efficiently converts atmospheric carbon dioxide directly into usable hydrocarbon fuel, using only sunlight for energy.Unlike conventional solar cells, which convert sunlight into electricity that must be stored in heavy batteries, the new device essentially does the work of plants, converting atmospheric carbon dioxide into fuel, solving two crucial problems at once. A solar farm of such “artificial leaves” could remove significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere and produce energy-dense fuel efficiently.“The new solar cell is not photovoltaic — it’s photosynthetic,”
Green Hydrocarbons (Biofuels)
Renewable hydrocarbon biofuels are fuels produced from biomass through a biological and thermochemical processes. These biofuels are similar to petroleum gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel in chemical makeup and are therefore considered alternative fuels. Biofuels can be used in vehicles without engine modifications and can utilize existing petroleum distribution systems.
Magenn Air Rotor System (Mars)
The Magenn Air Rotor System (MARS) is the next generation of wind turbines with cost and performance advantages over existing systems. MARS is a lighter-than-air tethered wind turbine that rotates about a horizontal axis in response to the wind, generating electrical energy. This electrical energy is transferred down the tether for consumption, or to a set of batteries or the power grid. Helium sustains the Magenn Air Rotor System, which ascends to an altitude as selected by the operator for the best winds. Its rotation also generates the “Magnus” effect. This aerodynamic phenomenon provides additional lift, keeps the MARS device stabilized, positions MARS within a very controlled and restricted location, and finally, causes MARS to pull up overhead to maximize altitude rather than drift downwind on its tether. It’s become mandatory rather than option to go for the renewable source of energy today in the whole world. For the same requirements we need advance options for future, hence MARS proves its excellence to use for better future.
Amorphous Core Transformer
An amorphous (non-crystalline) form of steel which has very high electrical resistance and low coercivity compared to previously used transformer steels, properties which reduce electrical losses and allow a given transformer to operate at higher ratings.Image result
“The alloys of boron, silicon, phosphorus, and other glass formers with magnetic metals (iron, cobalt, nickel) have high magnetic susceptibility, with low coercivity and high electrical resistance. Usually the conductivity of a metallic glass is of the same low order of magnitude as of a molten metal just above the melting point. The high resistance leads to low losses by eddy currents when subjected to alternating magnetic fields, a property useful for e.g. transformer magnetic cores. Their low coercivity also contributes to low loss.”
Intelligent Transformer Substations for Future-Proof Power Distribution
Today‘s transformer substations, originally designed for a merely unidirectional energy flow and equipped with conventional transformers, are no longer capable of coping with the effects of volatile power sources. The consequences are more and more frequent supply breakdowns in the classical distribution grid, with ever increasing downtimes. In order to reduce such downtimes notably and to limit the associated blackout costs, quick adjustments to the changed load conditions must be possible.
- Benefits of intelligent transformer substations
- Monitoring and assurance of power quality
- Controlling of overload situations
- Minimization of loss of power grid revenue by notably reduced interruption times
- Optimisationof grid expansion
- Object monitoring of the transformer substation
Tomorrow’s digital power grids
How will a future electricity grid manage the demands of induction cooking, charging electric cars and roof-installed solar panels? The answer is Smart Grids, which involves digitisation of the electricity grid.
The aim of a new research center called CINELDI (Centre for Intelligent Electricity Distribution – to empower the future Smart Grid) is to develop systems as part of tomorrow’s adaptable, robust and intelligent energy system.
“Smart Grids provide output and energy efficiency, and make it easier to exploit renewable energy sources. They can also help towards removing the need to expand existing grid capacity – something which would be unavoidable if Smart Grids hadn’t entered the stage”, says SINTEF’s Gerd Kjølle, who will be heading the CINELDI center.
Major demands are placed on the electricity grid when we cook our meals on induction hobs and charge up our electric cars at the same time. But Smart Grids enable us, for example, to give the grid operator permission to disconnect consumption linked to water heating, thus avoiding the need to expand grid capacity.
Smart Transformer for Smart Grid
- Smart transformers are transformers which integrates a general transformer’s features with monitoring software and communication technology among others. Power transformers are one of the most important and complex component of the electricity generation and transmission process. An owner of a power transformer has to face certain challenges such as high maintenance cost for extending the life of a transformer among others. Failure of a power transformer can lead to dire consequences such as revenue loss, life loss and legal consequences among others.Such challenges have led to the advent of smart transformers. These new-age transformers are designed to allow the maintenance of the power load independently. They can regulate the voltage constantly, while maintaining contact with the smart grid infrastructure, and deliver the optimal amount of power as and when required. They are programmed to allow remote monitoring and can act on any power fluctuations instantly. Provision for remote monitoring of critical components of the transformer, through in-built sensors, increases the reliability of continuous power distribution and reduces chances of transformer failure. Faults can be recognized remotely on a real-time basis and actions can be taken faster. The smart transformers are also more environment-friendly as they reduce energy consumption and thus reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. They are also equipped to protect electrical equipment by safeguarding them from voltage fluctuations leading to increasing the longevity of that equipment.
Bendable Lithium-ion Battery
- A new bendable lithium-ion battery that can flex and twist could power wearable devices and one day is used to develop a flexible smartphone, according to Panasonic, which is developing the new battery.Although it’s still in the early stages of development, the battery already has been tested to withstand twists, bends and other deformations while maintaining its ability to hold a charge, according to Panasonic.
Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENG)
The TENGs rely on the triboelectric effect, by which certain materials become electrically charged when rubbed against another type of material. When the materials are in contact, electrons flow from one to the other, but when the materials are separated, the one receiving electrons will hold a charge.
If these two materials are then connected by a circuit, a small current will flow to equalize the charges. By continuously repeating the process, an alternating electrical current can be produced to generate power.
Intelligent transport systems
Research on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) covers a wide field. ITS comprise combinations of communication, computer and control technology developed and applied in transport to improve system performance, transport safety, efficiency, productivity, service, environment, energy and mobility. ITS can be applied to transport infrastructure, as well as to vehicles, such as cars, trucks and trains. These systems can be used in both passenger and freight transport to improve service quality and transport management.
Solar nanotech-powered clothing
A scientist who has developed filaments that harvest and store the sun’s energy — and can be woven into textiles. The breakthrough would essentially turn jackets and other clothing into wearable, solar-powered batteries that never need to be plugged in.
A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway
The rapidly growing demand for powering portable electronic devices is driving the development of better batteries with features such as enhanced energy-storage densities, high levels of safety, fast rechargeability, biodegradability and small environmental footprints1. The rechargeable lithium-ion battery is often the system of choice because it offers a high energy density, has a flexible and light-weight design and has a longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. The energy-storage density of a typical lithium-ion battery is ~0.54 MJ kg−1 (that is, 150 Wh kg−1). The widespread use of metal-catalysed batteries also raises many concerns, primarily related to safety, toxic metal pollution and the availability of costly, limited, irreplaceable or rare metal resources.
Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) are emerging electrobiochemical devices that directly convert chemical energy from a variety of fuels into electricity using low-cost biocatalyst enzymes. Inspired by living cells that can utilize complex organic compounds, for example, starch and glycogen) as stored energy sources, sugar-powered EFCs represent the next generation of biodegradable, highly safe biobatteries. Compared with microbial fuel cells, EFCs usually generate much higher power density in terms of mW cm−2. This feature highlights their great potential for powering a variety of portable electronic devices in the near future